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Andrew Baisden
Andrew Baisden

Posted on • Originally published at dev.to

Git CLI Workflow

Useful Links

Git Command Explorer - Find the right commands you need without digging through the web.

Git Branch | Atlassian Git Tutorial

Gitflow Workflow | Atlassian Git Tutorial

Deploy Websites In Seconds With Netlify - YouTube

Prerequisites

Setup a local folder for your GIT repo
Go to github and create the repo
Once the repo is created, transfer your files into the folder and git push them

Setup using HTTPS

…or create a new repository on the command line

echo "# github-test" >> README.md
git init
git add README.md
git commit -m "first commit"
git remote add origin https://github.com/yourname/github-test.git
git push -u origin master
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…or push an existing repository from the command line

git remote add origin https://github.com/yourname/github-test.git
git push -u origin master
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…or clone an existing repository from the command line

git clone https://github.com/yourname/test-db.git
git push
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Useful CLI Commands

Visual Studio Code on macOS
Visual Studio Code on Windows
Visual Studio Code on Linux

Use the command code to open Visual Studio Code from the Terminal Window

code . to open Visual Studio Code

code index.html to open index.html

mkdir backend for creating folders

touch README.md for creating files like README.md

Basic GIT Commands

cd into the folder with your files

To see the files needed for staging

git status

To see a running record of commits and to check commit messages (Press Q to quit out from this mode)

git log

To add a change in the working directory to the staging area

git add --all

git add .

To add commit descriptions

git commit –m “Put commit message here”

To push to the master branch

git push

To pull from the master branch

git pull

List all of the branches in your repository. This is synonymous with git branch --list. Press Q to quit out

git branch

Creating branches

git branch test1

Adds the remote repo to local repo config and pushes the test1 branch to new-remote-repo

git remote add new-remote-repo https://github.com/yourname/github-test.git
git push new-remote-repo test1
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Switching between branches and the master

git checkout master
git checkout test1
git checkout test2
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To push the current branch and set the remote as upstream, use

git push --set-upstream origin test1
git push origin test1
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To delete a branch (local or remote)

Git says remote ref does not exist when I delete remote branch - Stack Overflow

git branch -d the_local_branch
git push origin --delete the_remote_branch
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Git clone a repo. Make sure that you delete the hidden .git folder inside so that you can start from scratch and upload to a new repo.

git clone https://github.com/yourname/github-test.git
cd github-test
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Basic GIT Merge and Merge Conflict Workflow Commands

Git & GitHub Tutorial for Beginners #9 - Merging Branches (& conflicts) - YouTube

GIT Merge

If the merge commit screen comes up do the following

Press the O key on your keyboard to insert your text
Press the esc key on your keyboard to stop inserting text
Press SHIFT : wq to save changes and exit the screen

  1. Create a branch and start making changes to the files in that branch
git branch example1
git checkout example1
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  1. Stage, then commit the changes. Return to your master branch
git add .
git commit -m "Your commit message"
git checkout master
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  1. Merge the branch changes into your master branch
git merge example1
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  1. Push the changes to your Git Repo
git push
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GIT Merge Conflict

  1. Resolve and fix the merge conflicts in the files associated
  2. Add the files to the staging area
git add .
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  1. Commit the changes you don’t need a message as its just a merge commit
git commit
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  1. On the merge commit screen save and exit - On the keyboard press SHIFT : wq
:wq 
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  1. See the commit messages including the merge conflict commit
git log --oneline
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Basic GIT Rebase Commands

Rewriting Commit Messages in Git

For rewriting previous commit messages

To redo the last commit's message

git commit --amend

To push the last amend to the master branch

git push --force

To look over & reword the last N commits

N = The commit in the list eg 1,2,3,4,5
a14338f9ffc302cf26bc36095e77887c32af6d66 = The name of the commit

git rebase -i HEAD~N

git rebase -i HEAD~1

git rebase -i a14338f9ffc302cf26bc36095e77887c32af6d66

Retrieve specific commit from a remote Git repository

git fetch - Retrieve specific commit from a remote Git repository - Stack Overflow

  1. Create a folder on your local machine and initialise with GIT
git init
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  1. Pull the codebase down from the GIT repo

For the master branch

git pull --rebase <repo> 
git pull --rebase https://github.com/yourname/test.git
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For the subtree branch

git pull --rebase <repo> <branch>
git pull --rebase https://github.com/yourname/test.git tree1
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  1. Select the commit that you want to download and work from
git reset --hard <commit-hash>
git reset --hard 83d515fd4149dd8608f38ab02314897276c0307b
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Git Stash

Git Tutorial: Using the Stash Command - YouTube

Deploying a subfolder to GitHub Pages

Sometimes you want to have a subdirectory on the master branch be the root directory of a repository’s gh-pages branch. This is useful for things like sites developed with Yeoman, or if you have a Jekyll site contained in the master branch alongside the rest of your code.

For the sake of this example, let’s pretend the subfolder containing your site is named dist.

Step 1

Remove the dist directory from the project’s .gitignore file (it’s ignored by default by Yeoman).

Step 2

Make sure git knows about your subtree (the subfolder with your site).

git add dist && git commit -m "Initial dist subtree commit"
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Step 3

Use subtree push to send it to the gh-pages branch on GitHub.

git subtree push --prefix dist origin gh-pages
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Boom. If your folder isn’t called dist, then you’ll need to change that in each of the commands above.


If you do this on a regular basis, you could also create a script containing the following somewhere in your path:

#!/bin/sh
if [ -z "$1" ]
then
  echo "Which folder do you want to deploy to GitHub Pages?"
  exit 1
fi
git subtree push --prefix $1 origin gh-pages
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Which lets you type commands like:

git gh-deploy path/to/your/site
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VIM Mode Commands

Basic Vim commands - For getting started (Example)

Vim has two modes.

  1. Insert mode (Where you can just type like normal text editor. Press i for insert mode)
  2. Command mode (Where you give commands to the editor to get things done. Press ESC for command mode)

Most of them below are in command mode

  • x - to delete the unwanted character
  • u - to undo the last the command and U to undo the whole line
  • CTRL-R to redo
  • A - to append text at the end
  • :wq - to save and exit
  • :q! - to trash all changes
  • dw - move the cursor to the beginning of the word to delete that word
  • 2w - to move the cursor two words forward.
  • 3e - to move the cursor to the end of the third word forward.
  • 0 (zero) to move to the start of the line.
  • d2w - which deletes 2 words .. number can be changed for deleting the number of consecutive words like d3w
  • dd to delete the line and 2dd to delete to line .number can be changed for deleting the number of consecutive words

How to remove node_modules

  1. Create a .gitignore file in the git repository if it does not contain one

touch .gitignore

  1. Open up the .gitignore and add the following line to the file

node_modules

  1. Remove the node_modules folder from the git repository

git rm -r --cached node_modules

  1. Commit the git repository without the node modules folder

git commit -m "Removed node_module folder"

  1. Push the repository to github

git push origin master

After all of that, you should also add the .gitignore and commit it to the repository

git add .gitignore

git commit -m "Updated the .gitignore file

git push origin master

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