DevOps helps bridge the divide that exists between development and operational teams which used to operate independently of one and in silos. DevOps brings together the workflows and processes used by development and operations, offering an infrastructure and toolchain that is shared that is based on the concept of pipelines. It's a collaborative process that allows each team to learn about the methods that other teams use which allows teams to collaborate to increase efficiency and quality.
As companies adopted DevOps, development teams built their pipelines with multiple tools. They had to modify and integrate the pipelines. When the new tool was introduced or a new requirement was introduced the pipeline needed been rebuilt. This was not efficient, so it was suggested to group pipeline components into containers and manage them through Kubernetes.
Containers are a type of software that contains all the dependencies and code required to run an application or service within any software environment. Through the creation of a modular infrastructure built on microservices that run inside containers, businesses can develop flexible, portable pipelines, that can be built and replicated in a short amount of time. Container orchestrators like Kubernetes assists in managing a vast number of containers that are in a group and automating various aspects of their lifecycle.
The following article says:
The way Kubernetes is changing the way infrastructure is built
Kubernetes to serve as an enabler to Enterprise DevOps
Configuration and infrastructure as code
- Cross-functional Collaboration
- on-demand infrastructure
- Zero Downtime Deployments
- 6 Kubernetes CI/CD Best Practices
- Create Git-based workflows (GitOps)
- Utilize Blue/Green or the Dozenary Patterns of Deployment
- Release the same container that was Tested
- Keep Secrets Secure
- scan images of containers for vulnerabilities
- Utilize IaC Scanning
What Kubernetes is Transforming the way we build infrastructure
Kubernetes is the world's most well-known container orchestration system, and is now an indispensable instrument to DevOps teams. Teams of application developers can now deploy containers-based applications to Kubernetes clusters. These can be used on-premises as well as in a cloud-based environment.
Containers and Kubernetes guarantees that infrastructure and applications always run and operate in the same way, thanks to their immutability. Kubernetes is an abstraction of infrastructure that fully automatizes deployment and provisioning, removing the requirement for configuration of the individual software components.
Kubernetes makes it clear between runtime infrastructure used for running operations and the deployment of applications. IT personnel can concentrate on managing Kubernetes-based clusters and managing issues related to capacity management, monitoring infrastructure and network disaster recovery and security. Team members working on application development can focus on developing containers, deploying, the images, setting up Kubernetes manifest YAML, as well as managing secrets. To learn more about Kubernetes consider taking Kubernetes Training.
A Kubernetes infrastructure alleviates the stress on both the operations and application teams, and enhances collaboration. In lieu of having to work among several parties to get an environment up and running or to deploy an application the entire process can be accomplished through an open declaration of configuration.
Kubernetes offers a variety of features to can help DevOps teams create large-scale pipelines. Its most significant benefit is the fact that it automates the manual tasks involved in orchestration. Here are some ways that Kubernetes can power enterprises with DevOps.
Kubernetes allows you to build your entire infrastructure using code (a pattern referred to in the field of IaC). Kubernetes can be used to define and automatically provide all the aspects of your software and tools, such as access control networks databases, storage and security.
You can also manage your settings for your environment in the code. In lieu of running scripts each when you want to create an environment in a new way, make a repository for your source code using the environment configuration and Kubernetes and utilize this configuration declarative to create environments automatically.
Additionally, you can utilize a version control tool to control your code as an application in development. This lets teams easily define and alter infrastructure and configurations, as well as transfer modifications to Kubernetes to automate processing.
Kubernetes allows you to control access on the elements within your pipe. You can decide which roles or apps can carry out specific tasks and restrict access to other applications or roles. For instance, you could restrict customers to only view production instances of your application as developers and testers are working on development instances within the same cluster.
This kind of control allows for seamless collaboration, while maintaining resources and configuration consistency.
Kubernetes lets developers create infrastructure that is self-service. Cluster administrators can set up common resources, like permanent volumes. Developers are able to provide them in a dynamic manner based on their needs, without needing to communicate with IT. Operations teams maintain full authority over kind of resources that are available in the cluster, resource allocation and security configuration.
Automatic rollbacks and rolling updates with Kubernetes enable teams to roll out updates without interruptions. You can utilize Kubernetes to shift the traffic between different services and update applications in a single step without disrupting production and without the need to redeploy the entire system.
These options allow for different deployment patterns that are progressive, like blue/green deployments or canary deployments. A/B testing.
The best practices listed below can assist you in making the most out of CI/CD within the Kubernetes environment.
Invoking CI/CD pipelines via Git-based processes has numerous advantages regarding consistency as well as development efficiency. Companies keep all changes to their environment and pipeline within a single repository, which allows developers to review their changes and understand precisely what's being implemented at any given moment in time. GitOps makes it easier to rollback to prior good configuration in the event of issues in production.
The CI/CD pipeline is used to deploy the code in production after it passes the automated tests. But, the tests aren't flawless and it's not uncommon to discover bugs or security issues in production environments.
Blue/Green deployment pattern scan solve this issue. A green deployment is when you install another set of applications in parallel with the production instances. Users switch to the new version but you leave the older version in place to allow for easy rollback in the event there are issues.
A canary deployment method is another method to minimize the chance of deployments that are new. Canary deployments are an upgrade version of the application, which is distributed to a tiny portion of users to check for bugs and to observe user metrics. If the updated version is well-received by users, it will be distributed to other users until all users are able to see the latest version. If a problem is found the users are all changed back to the stable version.
Kubernetes clusters utilize services to manage deployments of canaries. A service can make use of labels and selectors to direct users to certain pods. This way, a specific percentage of users will be directed to pods running a version that is a canary that the program.
Containers that are mutable in development, staging development or QA environments must be the same as containers used in production. This prevents any modifications that could occur between testing success and product launch. To achieve this, utilize the Git tag to initiate a deployment to production and then deploy the container using its commit ID.
Secrets are digital identities that need to be protected in the Kubernetes-based cluster. A majority of applications employ secrets to allow authentication using applications and services that use CI/CD. Source control systems such as GitHub may reveal secrets if they're used in the code in plaintext. This can result in serious security risk. So, it is essential to ensure that secret information is safe and protected outside of the container, within an appropriate secrets management system or with Kubernetes secret objects.
Scan and test each new container image is essential to find weaknesses introduced by new builds or components. Be aware that each new version of your CI/CD pipeline may create new vulnerability. It is also crucial to test images of containers to make sure that the containers contain the content expected and that specifications for images are properly defined.
infrastructure as a Service (IaC) lets teams automatically set up IT infrastructure. Automation of infrastructure has become an essential component in current DevOps processes. Kubernetes' YAML files and Helm charts constitute a particular example that are IaC Configuration templates.
The widespread usage of IaC can create new security dangers, as the same IaC template (for instance an Kubernetes pod specifications) can be used to generate a huge amount of resources for runtime. Any flaw in the template will be passed on to all resources. Therefore, IaC templates create a new attack area.
An IaC scanning tool analyses popular cloud-native formats, such as Dockerfiles and Kubernetes YAML , and then applies an array of rules that ensure good security best practices. They may also suggest other methods to secure Kubernetes configurations.
For instance, IaC scanning can detect Docker images that are designed to be run as root, Kubernetes manifests that request granted access to a server's file system or scripts that create openly accessible Amazon S3 buckets. Another major feature for IaC scanners is that they are able to discover hidden secrets that are written in plaintext inside IaC templates.
It is crucial to use IaC scanning tools while creating configurations, and also on an periodic basis for automated testing that is conducted through the entire CI/CD process.